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Science Connections
Matter and Its Properties

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Mass is a mearure fo the amount of matter. 
Matter can be defined as anything that has mass and takes up space.
An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
An element is a pure substance made of only one kind of atom.
A compound is a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
Properties are either intensive or extensive.
Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present.  Such properties include volume, mass, and the amount of energy in a substance.
Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present.  Such properties include the melting point, boiling point, density, and ability to conduct electricity and heat.
A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.
A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance is called a physical change.  Examples of physical changes includes grinding, cutting, melting, and boiling a material.
A change of state is a physical change of a substance from one state to another.  The three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
Matter in the solid state has definite volume and definite shape.
Matter in the liquid state has a definite volume but an indefinite shape; a liquid assumes the shape of its container.
Matter in the gas state has neither definite volume nor definite shape.
A chemical property relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances.
A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called a chemical change or chemical reaction.
The substances that react in a chemical change are called the reactants.
The substances that are formed by the chemical change are called the products.
A mixture is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties.
A pure substance has a fixed composition and differs from a mixture in the following ways:
  1. Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties.
  2. Every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same composition.


Modern Chemistry HOLT, RINEHART and WINSTON, 1999